Thursday, July 6, 2017
Thursday, November 18, 2010
Pradakshna
Pradakshina (Sanskrit), meaning circumambulation, consists of walking around in a 'circle' as a form of worship in Hindu ceremonies in India. The devotees walk around the sanctum sanctorum, the innermost chamber of the shrine housing the temple deity. It is done around sacred fire (Agni), trees and plants as well. Thus Pradakshina is done around Tulsi plant and Peepal tree. Pradakshina or Parikrama is done in pilgrimage centres also. Parikrama around the Govardhana mount near Mathura (UP) is very famous. This parikrama involves a walk of 26 miles around Govardhana hillock which is related to Shri Krishna's life as a child.
The circumambulation is done usually in a clockwise direction except in the Shiva temples. The clockwise direction is followed since the devotees should have their rightside towards the object of worship. For this, the devotees will have to walk towards their left hand side from the front of the object of worship. Pradakshina literally means: to the right (Dakshina means right). The Bali stones should be included in the Pradakshina purview. So in Pradakshina, one goes to the left hand direction to keep the deity as also the Bali Stones around the Sanctum Sanctorum on one's right side.
Pradakshina is one of the customary aspects of going to a temple. Typically, Pradakshina is done after the completion of traditional worship (puja) and after paying homage to the deity. Pradakshina is supposed to be done with a meditative mood.
The pathway made of granite stone around the shrine is called the Pradakshina path.
Pradakshina around the sacred fire is a part of the Hindu marriage ceremony.
Speciality of Pradakshina in SHIVA Temples
In Shiva temples, the devotees start the Pradakshina as usual from the front and go clockwise till they reach the gomukhi (the outlet for abhisheka water) from the Sanctum Sanctorum. As usual the clockwise perambulation is maintained outside of the Bali stones. The drainage outlet for the ritual ablution offered on the Shiva Linga with water, milk, curd, coconut water, ghee, ashes (bhasma)etc. is not to be crossed. So the worshippers have to return in anticlockwise direction till they reach the other side of the drainage outlet to complete the circle. During this anticlockwise perambulation, the devotee should tread a path inside of the Bali stones. The Bali stones are always to be kept the right side of the devotees. After reaching the drainage oulet, they have to return to the front in the clockwise direction keeping the path outside the Bali stones. Thus one Pradakshina is completed.
Shayana Pradakshinam
Shayana Pradakshinam is done in a lying posture. It starts with a Sashtanga Namaskara in front of the sanctum sanctorum. In Sashtanga Namaskara, the devotees have eight parts of their bodies touching the ground. Thus forehead, chest, shoulders, hands and knees touch the ground. The folded hands will be directed always towards the deity. In this pose, the devotees circumambulate on the Pradakshina path. The relatives and friends of the devotees help them to roll around. This is a tedious ritual.
Number of Pradakshinas
For each deity, the minimum number of Pradakshinas to be done are specified.
Ganesha: 1
Shiva: 2
Vishnu: 3
Ayyappa: 4
Subrahmanya (Karthikeya): 5
Durga: 6
Peepal Tree: 7
The Swayambhu Agama says that doing Pradakshina 21 times to any deity is sanctified.
Significance of doing Pradakshina
We cannot draw a circle without a center point. The Lord is the center, source and essence of our lives. We acknowledge this by performing Pradakshina. Recognizing Him as the focal point in our lives, we go about doing our daily chores. This is the significance of Pradakshina.
Also every point on the circumference of a circle is equidistant from the centre. This means that wherever we may be or whoever we may be, we are equally close to the Lord. His grace flows towards us without partiality.
According to Adi Sankaracharya, real Pradakshina is the meditation that thousands of universes are revolving around the Great Lord, the unmoving centre of all forms.
There is a popular legend about the significance of Pradakshina. Once Lord Shiva wanted his two sons, Ganesha and Subrahmanya, to get "worldly experience" and asked them take a "tour of the universe". While Subrahmanya spent decades traveling the world on his peacock, Ganesha just walked a full circle around his mother and father and is believed to have explained "since the world is contained within you, I have already encircled the world"!
The circumambulation is done usually in a clockwise direction except in the Shiva temples. The clockwise direction is followed since the devotees should have their rightside towards the object of worship. For this, the devotees will have to walk towards their left hand side from the front of the object of worship. Pradakshina literally means: to the right (Dakshina means right). The Bali stones should be included in the Pradakshina purview. So in Pradakshina, one goes to the left hand direction to keep the deity as also the Bali Stones around the Sanctum Sanctorum on one's right side.
Pradakshina is one of the customary aspects of going to a temple. Typically, Pradakshina is done after the completion of traditional worship (puja) and after paying homage to the deity. Pradakshina is supposed to be done with a meditative mood.
The pathway made of granite stone around the shrine is called the Pradakshina path.
Pradakshina around the sacred fire is a part of the Hindu marriage ceremony.
Speciality of Pradakshina in SHIVA Temples
In Shiva temples, the devotees start the Pradakshina as usual from the front and go clockwise till they reach the gomukhi (the outlet for abhisheka water) from the Sanctum Sanctorum. As usual the clockwise perambulation is maintained outside of the Bali stones. The drainage outlet for the ritual ablution offered on the Shiva Linga with water, milk, curd, coconut water, ghee, ashes (bhasma)etc. is not to be crossed. So the worshippers have to return in anticlockwise direction till they reach the other side of the drainage outlet to complete the circle. During this anticlockwise perambulation, the devotee should tread a path inside of the Bali stones. The Bali stones are always to be kept the right side of the devotees. After reaching the drainage oulet, they have to return to the front in the clockwise direction keeping the path outside the Bali stones. Thus one Pradakshina is completed.
Shayana Pradakshinam
Shayana Pradakshinam is done in a lying posture. It starts with a Sashtanga Namaskara in front of the sanctum sanctorum. In Sashtanga Namaskara, the devotees have eight parts of their bodies touching the ground. Thus forehead, chest, shoulders, hands and knees touch the ground. The folded hands will be directed always towards the deity. In this pose, the devotees circumambulate on the Pradakshina path. The relatives and friends of the devotees help them to roll around. This is a tedious ritual.
Number of Pradakshinas
For each deity, the minimum number of Pradakshinas to be done are specified.
Ganesha: 1
Shiva: 2
Vishnu: 3
Ayyappa: 4
Subrahmanya (Karthikeya): 5
Durga: 6
Peepal Tree: 7
The Swayambhu Agama says that doing Pradakshina 21 times to any deity is sanctified.
Significance of doing Pradakshina
We cannot draw a circle without a center point. The Lord is the center, source and essence of our lives. We acknowledge this by performing Pradakshina. Recognizing Him as the focal point in our lives, we go about doing our daily chores. This is the significance of Pradakshina.
Also every point on the circumference of a circle is equidistant from the centre. This means that wherever we may be or whoever we may be, we are equally close to the Lord. His grace flows towards us without partiality.
According to Adi Sankaracharya, real Pradakshina is the meditation that thousands of universes are revolving around the Great Lord, the unmoving centre of all forms.
There is a popular legend about the significance of Pradakshina. Once Lord Shiva wanted his two sons, Ganesha and Subrahmanya, to get "worldly experience" and asked them take a "tour of the universe". While Subrahmanya spent decades traveling the world on his peacock, Ganesha just walked a full circle around his mother and father and is believed to have explained "since the world is contained within you, I have already encircled the world"!
Monday, April 19, 2010
A small trip across mountains in Italy
We self, Keith Hall and Van Der Horst Kees went on a drive through the mountains in Italy started at about 10:30 am on the Sunday morning of 18042010 from President Hotel situated in Salice Terme, Godiasco, Pavia, Italy on a fantastic drive through the mountains driving through Voghera, Varzi, Bobbio, Ferriere, Rocca, Genoa and finally through the Autostrada back to Salice Terme. A small map is attached for ease of understanding the wonderful route.
View Directions to Salice Terme, Italy in a larger map
View Directions to Salice Terme, Italy in a larger map
Location:
Salice Terme, Godiasco PV, Italy
Friday, November 20, 2009
Saturday, June 6, 2009
Ancestorage and Niyogi Brahmins Cont...........
Surnames (Family Names) of:
Niyogi Brahmins
1

Adaalatu

2

Adukuri

3

Ainamprolu

4

Ainaparti

5

Akhandam

6

Akkiraju

7

Alamuru

8

Alapattu

9

Aleti

10

Alladi

11

Ambadasu

12

Ambarukhana

13

Ammiraju

14

Amruthavakkula

15

Anantavarapu

16

Andukuru

17

Anipeddi

18

Annavarpu

19

Anumarlapudi

20

Attota

21

Ayenapurapu

22

Ayinambrolu

23

Ayinpura

24

Bairavarasu

25

Balijepalli

26

Bathulapalli

27

Beecharaju

28

Bhandaru

29

Bharatam

30

Bhatlapenamarthi

31

Bhatraju

32

Bhimavarapu

33

Birudavolu

34

Bodicherla

35

Bolla

36

Bollapragada

37

Boppudi

38

Brahmandam

39

Budamagunta

40

Chakilam

41

Challa

42

Chandraraju

43

Chelpati

44

Cheruku

45

Chetlapalli

46

Chevendra

47

Chillara

48

Chittem

49

Chodavarapu

50

Daliparthi

51

Damerla

52

Devalraju

53

Devambotla

54

Devarabotla

55

Dongra

56

Dontaraju

57

Dosapati

58

Dubagunta

59

Durga

60

Durgaraju

61

Edlapalli

62

Edury

63

Eedupalli

64

Errampeta Chetlapalli

65

Errapatruni

66

Errum

67

Gaddapalli

68

Gadicharla

69

Gadidasu

70

Gajulapalli

71

Gampa

72

Ganapatiraju

73

Gandavarapu

74

Gangaravula

75

Ganugapati

76

Garikapati

77

Gatraju

78

Ghali

79

Ghantasala

80

Godavari

81

Goparaju

82

Gopaluni

83

Gorijavolu

84

Guduru

85

Gundlapalli

86

Gundumalla

87

Guntupalli

88

Huggahalli

89

Ikkurthi

90

Ikkurthy

91

Ikkurty

92

Illandula

93

Illendula

94

Illindala

95

Inapurapu

96

Indurthi

97

Inumella

98

Jeedigunta

99

Josyula

100

Kagollu

101

Kagupati

102

Kakarlamudi

103

Kakarlapudi

104

Kakileru Chetlapalli

105

Kamaraju

106

Kambhammettu

107

Kanakabhattula

108

Kanchikacharala

109

Kanchugantala

110

Kandhibanda

111

Kankipati

112

Kanukollu

113

Kapavarapu

114

Karinapati

115

Karlapudi

116

Kasarabada

117

Kathari

118

Kavipurapu

119

Kavulu

120

Kavuluri

121

Kavuru

122

Kesharaju

123

Khandaladinne

124

Koduri

125

Kolipaka

126

Komaravolu

127

Kona

128

Koochi

129

Korlimarla

130

Kotamraju

131

Kovuru

132

Kunchanapalli

133

Kuppila

134

Lakinepalli

135

Lakkaraju

136

Lingamgunta

137

Machiraju

138

Maddali

139

Madiraju

140

Mallavarapu

141

Malyala

142

Mandapaka

143

Manikonda

144

Mannava

145

Marella

146

Mattigunta

147

Matukumalli

148

Mittadoddi

149

Modukuru

150

Morparthi

151

Mukkamala

152

Mukkapati

153

Munimanikyam

154

Mylavarapu

155

Nadimpalli

156

Nagulapalli

157

Nandiraju

158

Naraparaju

159

Nibhanupudi

160

Nissankala

161

Paluvayi

162

Pamarthi

163

Pamidimukkala

164

Parimi

165

Parupudi

166

Patibanda

167

Penamakuri

168

Penamakuru

169

Penugonda Chetlapalli

170

Pidugu

171

Potula

172

Pusuluri

173

Rayabharam

174

Rayaprolu

175

Regadamilli

176

Revuri

177

Rudravarapu

178

Rupanagunta

179

Salapaka

180

Sambaraju

181

Sambatur

182

Sampatam

183

Samudram

184

Sandepudi

185

Sannikandlapadu

186

Saripalli

187

Satram

188

Sattenapalli

189

Savidi

190

Singaraju

191

Somaasi

192

Somaraju

193

Srikaram

194

Sthaanam

195

Tammera

196

Thondapi

197

Toleti

198

Torthi

199

Tumu

200

Turlapati

201

Tuttagunta

202

Twarakavi

203

Udayagiri

204

Ullaganti

205

Uppala

206

Urakaranam

207

Uta

208

Uttaralingamakuntla

209

Vaddiraju

210

Vadduri

211

Vadlamudi

212

Vaduri

213

Vahi

214

Vallambhatla

215

Vanam

216

Vangipurapu

217

Vankamamidi

218

Vankeswarapu

219

Varagani

220

Varahagiri

221

Vareswaram

222

Varkhola

223

Vasa

224

Vegaraju

225

Veladi

226

Velagapudi

227

Vepachedu

228

Vinnakota

229

Vissamraju,

230

Yamarthi

231

Yedida

232

Yerravally

Most of these families belong to
"Kanva" or "Kanveeya" branch of Pradhamasakha. Many of
these family names are unique to Pradhamasakha, and you may not find the same
names in any other Brahmin caste, but some family names are found in various
other Brahmin groups as well. Also, some of these family names may be found in
nonBrahmin castes due to the fact that many of the family names are derived
from the village names.
Aruvela Niyogi
1

Abbaraju

2

Abburi

3

Achanta

4

Addanki

5

Adidamu

6

Adimulam

7

Adipudi

8

Adiraju

9

Aditham

10

Adivi

11

Aduri

12

Ajjarapu

13

Akkanapragada

14

Akkaraju

15

Akkenapragada

16

Akkinapragada

17

Akkinepalli

18

Akkiraju

19

Akunuri

20

Aluru

21

Amanaganti

22

Amancherla

23

Ammanabrolu

24

Amperayani

25

Andukuri

26

Annamraju

27

Annapragada

28

Annavaram

29

Apparaju in Aruvela Niyogi

30

Aradhyula

31

Arjarapu

32

Atlapragada

33

Atluri

34

Atreyapurapu

35

Avasarala

36

Avatapalli

37

Avva

38

Ayyadevara

39

Ayyagari

40

Ayyalaraju

41

Bakaraju

42

Balabhadrapatruni

43

Balanthrapu

44

Balemarthy

45

Balivada

46

Ballijepalli

47

Banda

48

Bandhakavi

49

Bapatla

50

Basavaraju

51

Bendapudi

52

Bhavaraju

53

Bhadriraju

54

Bhamidipati

55

Bharatham

56

Bhattiprolu

57

Bheemaraju

58

Bhimaraju

59

Bhogaraju

60

Bhograj

61

Bhupatiraju

62

Bitragunta

63

Bodapati

64

Boddapati

65

Bollapalli

66

Bollapragada

67

Bommakanti

68

Bommaraju

69

Bommireddipalli

70

Bondalapati

71

Botlaguduru

72

Boyanapalli

73

Boyinepalli

74

Brahmandam

75

Budaraju

76

Buddhavarapu

77

Budhiraju

78

Buyyanapragada

79

Chadalawada

80

Chaganti

81

Chaganty

82

Chakilam

83

Chalamchala

84

Challa

85

Challapally

86

Chamaraju

87

Chamarthy

88

Chandarlapati

89

Chandramouli

90

Chandraraju

91

Chatrathi

92

Cheemalamarri

93

Chennapragada

94

Cherukupalli

95

Cherukuvada

96

Chilakalapudi

97

Chimakurthy

98

Chinnamuttevi

99

Chinta

100

Chintagunta

101

Chintalapudi

102

Chintapalli

103

Chitrapu

104

Chittamuri

105

Chittapragada

106

Chitturi

107

Chodavarapu

108

Choragudi

109

Ciriyam

110

Daliparthy

111

Damaraju

112

Dammalapati

113

Danam

114

Dantanaraju

115

Davuluri

116

Desabhatla

117

Desaraju

118

Desiraju

119

Devalraju

120

Devambotla

121

Devarabhotla

122

Devarabotla

123

Devulapalli

124

Dhanyamraju

125

Dharani

126

Dharmavarapu

127

Dhurjati

128

Dinavahi

129

Dittakavi

130

Doddavarapu

131

Dontaraju

132

Dronamraju

133

Duggaraju

134

Duggirala

135

Duttaluru

136

Eadara

137

Eeswarapragada

138

Elchuri

139

Enjeti

140

Errapragada

141

Gaddamanugu

142

Gade

143

Gadiraju

144

Gady

145

Ganavarapu

146

Gandavarapu

147

Gandrapu

148

Gangaraju

149

Gangavarapu

150

Ganjam

151

Gannavarapu

152

Gollamudi

153

Goparaju

154

Goteti

155

Govindaraju

156

Gudipati

157

Gudladona

158

Gudlavalleti

159

Gullapalli

160

Gummaraju

161

Gundamaraju

162

Gundimeda

163

Gundlapalli

164

Gunnikuntla

165

Gurazada

166

Idury

167

Illandula

168

Illendula

169

Illindala

170

Inamanamelluri

171

Indupalli

172

Inugurthi

173

Inumella

174

Ippagunta

175

Iragavarapu

176

Ivaturi

177

Jallawaram

178

Jakkaraju

179

Jayagiri

180

Jayanthi

181

Jeedigunta

182

Jillellamudi

183

Jonnalagadda

184

Kaasiraju

185

Kadambari

186

Kalapatapu

187

Kalavacharla

188

Kaligotla

189

Kallakuri

190

Kalley

191

Kalluri

192

Kalugotla

193

Kalvakurthi

194

Kamakolanu

195

Kamaraju gadda

196

Kambhammettu

197

Kanakagiri

198

Kanala

199

Kanchnepalli

200

Kandukuri

201

Kanukolanu

202

Kanukollu

203

Kanuparthi

204

Kanuparthy

205

Kapavarapu

206

Karanam

207

Karavadi

208

Kasavaraju

209

Kasthala

210

Kasturi

211

Kasukurthi

212

Katranikona

213

Kattekola

214

Katuri

215

Kavi

216

Kavipurapu

217

Kesaanapalli

218

Kesapragada

219

Kesinapalli

220

Khambhammettu

221

Kocherlakota

222

Kodi

223

Koduri

224

Koduru

225

Koka

226

Kolanu

227

Komara

228

Komaragiri

229

Komarraju

230

Kommaraju

231

Kona

232

Konda

233

Kondapally

234

Kondepudi

235

Konduri

236

Konduru

237

Konidena

238

Konuru

239

Kopparapu

240

Korimilli

241

Korrapati

242

Korupolu

243

Kotamarthi

244

Kotamraju

245

Kotaru

246

Kotharu

247

Kotichintala

248

Kovuru

249

Krovvidi

250

Kuchimanchi

251

Kummamuru

252

Kunderu

253

Kundurthi

254

Kuntamukkala

255

Kurapati

256

Lakkapragada

257

Lakkaraju

258

Lakkavajjula

259

Lingamgunta

260

Lingaraju

261

Machavaram

262

Machiraju

263

Maddali

264

Maddikonda

265

Madiraju

266

Majeti

267

Malkapuram

268

Mallampalli

269

Mallapragada

270

Mallavarapu

271

Malyala

272

Manapragada

273

Manchikalapati

274

Manchikanti

275

Manchiraju

276

Mandapaka

277

Mandapati

278

Mangu

279

Mannava

280

Mannepalli

281

Mantri

282

Mantripragada

283

Mantriraju

284

Maramraju

285

Marella

286

Marripati

287

Mattigunta

288

Matukumalli

289

Medikonduru

290

Medukonduru

291

Mittagunta

292

Mocherla

293

Modukuru

294

Mooparti

295

Moorthiraju

296

Mopidevi

297

Movva

298

Mudunuru

299

Mukkamala

300

Muktevi

301

Mulakaluri

302

Mulpur

303

Mulpuri

304

Mulugu

305

Munagamuri

306

Munimanikyam

307

Munipalle

308

Muppalla

309

Mutharaju

310

Muvva

311

Mydavolu

312

Mylavarapu

313

Mynampati

314

Mysore

315

Nadela

316

Nadimpalli

317

Nadupalli

318

Namavarapu

319

Namburi

320

Nandanavanam

321

Nandigama

322

Nandiraju

323

Nandiwada

324

Nanduri

325

Naraparaju

326

Navuluri

327

Nedunuri

328

Neelamraju

329

Nellutla

330

Nemali

331

Nemalikanti

332

Nerella

333

Nidamarthi

334

Nidumolu

335

Nimishakavi

336

Nimushakavi

337

Nissankala

338

Paaturi

339

Pabbaraju

340

Pagolu

341

Paidipati

342

Palagummi

343

Palakodety

344

Palepu

345

Palivela

346

Palutla

347

Pamidipati

348

Pamulaparthi

349

Pamulapati

350

Panamgipalli

351

Panchalavarapu

352

Pandrangi

353

Pandravada

354

Panguluri

355

Panthangi

356

Paramathmuni

357

Paramatmuni

358

Paramkusham

359

Parimi

360

Parupalli

361

Pathapati

362

Pathikonda

363

Patibanda

364

Patruni

365

Pattamatta

366

Peddiraju

367

Pegatraju

368

Pelluri

369

Pemmaraju

370

Penamakuru

371

Penumudi

372

Perala

373

Petluri

374

Piduru

375

Pindiproli

376

Pindiprolu

377

Pingali

378

Pochiraju

379

Poduri

380

Pogalore

381

Polamraju

382

Polapragada

383

Polavaram

384

Poluri

385

Ponduri

386

Ponnada

387

Ponnekanti

388

Poolla

389

Poruri

390

Pothapragada

391

Potharaju

392

Potturi

393

Pragada

394

Pragadaraju

395

Praturi

396

Puligadda

397

Puligurtha

398

Pulijala

399

Pulikanti

400

Pulipaka

401

Pullamaraju

402

Punyamurthula

403

Pusapati

404

Putrevu

405

Puttabakula

406

Puvvada

407

Rachapudi

408

Racherla

409

Rajasekharuni

410

Ramachandruni

411

Ramapragada

412

Ramaraju

413

Rangaraju

414

Raparla

415

Ravela

416

Ravinutala

417

Ravipati

418

Ravula

419

Ravulaparti

420

Ravuri

421

Rayapudi

422

Rayasam

423

Rebbaprgada

424

Returi

425

Rupanagunta

426

Ryali

427

Saathamraju

428

Sambatur

429

Sambharaju

430

Sandepudi

431

Sangaraju

432

Sanka

433

Sankhamraju

434

Santapur

435

Sarikonda

436

Sarraju

437

Sarvepalli

438

Sathuluri

439

Sattiraju

440

Satyavolu

441

Seethamraju

442

Seethanraju

443

Seethimraju

444

Siddiraju

445

Singam

446

Singampalli

447

Singaraju

448

Siripurapu

449

Srigiriraju

450

Srikantham

451

Sundaragiri

452

Sunkaranam

453

Sunkesula

454

Surampudi

455

Suraparaju

456

Tadakamalla

457

Tadanki

458

Tadepalli

459

Tadikonda

460

Tadimalla

461

Tadimeti

462

Tadinada

463

Talapuru

464

Tallamraju

465

Tallapragada

466

Talluri

467

Talpuri

468

Tamiri (Kousikasa)

469

Tamirisa

470

Tamvada

471

Tanguturi

472

Tanuku

473

Tatavarthy

474

Tatiraju

475

Telidevara

476

Tenneti

477

Tetali

478

Thalupooru

479

Thatikonda

480

Thondapi

481

Thungathurthi

482

Timmaraju

483

Tipparaju

484

Tummalacheruv

485

Tummurugoti

486

Turaga

487

Turimella

488

Turlapati

489

Turlapaty

490

Tvarakavi

491

Unnava

492

Uppalapati

493

Uppaluri

494

Uppugunduri

495

Vaddadi

496

Vaddiparthi

497

Vadlamannati

498

Vadrevu

499

Vajja

500

Vajjala

501

Vakkalanka

502

Valluri

503

Valluru

504

Vallury

505

Vamaraju

506

Vangipurapu

507

Vankamamidi

508

Varahagiri

509

Varanasi

510

Varigonda

511

Vasiraju

512

Vedagiri

513

Vedaraju

514

Vedururu

515

Veladi

516

Velagaleti

517

Velagapudi

518

Velaparti

519

Veldurthy

520

Velichety

521

Velpuru

522

Vemavarapu

523

Vempati

524

Vemuganti

525

Vemula

526

Vemulakonda

527

Vemuri

528

Vennelaganti

529

Ventrapragada

530

Venuturupalle

531

Vepakomma

532

Vinnakota

533

Viriyala

534

Vissapragada

535

Volety

536

Voore

537

Vootukuri

538

Vurakaranam

539

Wuppalapati

540

Wuppugundur

541

Wuppukondur

542

Wuriti

543

Yabaluri

544

Yallapragada

545

Yandapalli

546

Yandapally

547

Yarrapragada

548

Yeddanapudi

549

Yedida

550

Yellamraju

551

Yendluri

552

Yerragudipati

553

Yerramilli

554

Yerrapragada

555

Yerukalapudi

Niyogis Today
Niyogis are those Brahmins, who took
up various secular vocations including military ones like their counterparts in
other states such as Chitpavans in Maharashtra, Mohyals in the Punjab, Tyagis
and Bhumihar Brahmins in most parts of Northern India and the Pushpaka Brahmins
of Kerala. For this many of them gave up religious occupations such as
priesthood. Today you can see only handfull of niyogi priests working in some
temples. But still as Brahmins, they are committed to follow individual /
family level rituals required to be followed at their homes, even though they
don't choose that as career outside. Hence, the Niyogis never either accept a
religious gift or partake of Shraadha food (food given to Brahmins during death
related rituals). In spite of living in modern age, most of them never give up
their consciousness regarding their Vedic heritage, but rather try to follow or
understand them radically.
Niyogis depend and emphasize on
modern education, administration (Niyogis have traditionally been well represented
in the lower cadres of local administration in Andhra Pradesh), management etc.
In the past, they were Zamindars, Talukdars, Munsabs, Minor kings, Ministers in
the courts of kings and feudatories. Many of them were village accountants /
clerks, Karanams (in Andhra) or Patwaris (in Telangana), until recently.
A famous saying goes Yendu
Niyogimpavalenanna Niyogimpadagina vaadu Niyogi  He who can be trusted for
successful completion of task is a Niyogi.
List of gotras
The word "Gotra" means
"lineage" in the Sanskrit language. While it is somewhat akin to a
family name, the given name of a family is often different from its gotra, as
given names may reflect the traditional occupation, place of residence or other
important family characteristic rather than gotra.
People belonging to the same gotra
also belong to the same caste in the Hindu social system. But there is a
notable exception among matrilineal Tulu/Malayalee speakers where the lineages
are the same across the castes. For such lists of gotras compounded by caste,
please refer to the following:
Brahmins: refer to List of Brahmin
gotras
Vysyas: refer to Komati (caste)
Dhangars: refer to List of Dhangar
clans in India
Kammas
Khatris: refer to List of Khatri
last names
Kapu / Telaga / Balija / Naidu
Nairs
Reddys
Rajputs: refer to Rajput clans
Jats: refer to List of Jat clans
Kongu Vellala Gounder's: refer to
List of Kongu Vellala kootams
Tuluva/Malayalees: refer to Tuluva
Malayali lineage system
Rohillas: refer to List of Rohilla
Gotra
Boyar caste refer to List of Boyar
gotras
Mudaliars
Oraons
The Mouths that Recited Vedas are
Grieving
Brahmins played an extraordinary
role in the spread of knowledge and vitalizing the Indian society for
millennia. Recently, in the freedom movement and national revitalization
movements they proved their merit by playing their traditional role as usual.
The Brahmins whose goals have been the enlightenment and prosperity of the
society are leaving mainstream social, political and economic fields nowadays.
Having merit is not enough to garner the positions in various fields and seats
in schools in today’s society blighted with reservations and quotas. It is high
time they raise their voice against the injustice and get together to fight by
blowing the conch of awakening (clarion call), says Parusuram.
Brahmins lost their traditional jobs
such as karaneekam (clerk/accountant) and agraharas (land endowments).
(It should be noted that Brahmins
are not the priests in every temple. Temples like mutyalamma, poleramma,
mahankali etc., where animal sacrifices are a norm, Brahmins are not priests.
Brahmin gotra system
The word "gotra" means
"lineage" in the Sanskrit language. Among those of the Brahmin caste,
gotras are reckoned patrilineally. Each gotra takes the name of a famous Rishi
or sage who was the patrilineal forebearer of that clan. And each Gotra is
addressed by the suffix 'sa' or 'asa' as relevant.
The concept of Gotra was the first
attempt among Brahmins to classify themselves among different groups. At the
beginning, these gentes identified themselves by the names of various rishis
(Angirasa, Atri, Gautam, Kashyapa, Bhrigu, Vasishtha, Kutsa, and Bharadvaja;
the first seven of these are often enumerated as Saptarishis). It is to be
noted that Vishwamitra was initially a Kshatriya king, who later chose and rose
to become an ascetic rishi. Hence the gotra was applied to the grouping
stemming from one of these rishis as his descendants.
Contents
1 Gotras
2 Gothras and Pravaras
3 Lists of Brahmin Gotras
4 Implications
5 References
6 See also
Gotras
Many lines of descent from the major
rishis were later grouped separately. Accordingly, the major gotras were
divided into ganas (subdivisions) and each gana was further divided into groups
of families. The term gotra was then frequently started being applied to the
ganas and to the subganas.
Every Brahmin claims to be a direct
patrilinial descendant of one of the founding rishis of a certain gana or
subgana. It is the gana or subgana that is now commonly referred to as gotra.
Over the years, the number of gotras
increased due to:
Descendants of original rishi also
started new family lineage or new gotras, by inter marriage with other
subgroups of the same caste, and inspired by another rishi whose name they
bear as their own gotra.
Pravara is the number of the most
excellent rishis who belonged to that particular gotra to which a person
belongs. Gotra is the name of the founding father. In Vedic ritual, the
importance of the pravara appears to be in its use by the ritualist for
extolling his ancestry and proclaiming, "As a descendant of worthy
ancestors, I am a fit and proper person to do the act I am performing."
The sacred thread yajnopavita worn on upanayana has close connection with the
concept of pravaras related to Brahmin gotra system. While tying the knots of
sacred thread, an oath is taken in the name of each one of these three or five
of the most excellent rishis belonging to one's gotra.
The full affiliation of a brāhamana
consists of:Ø
Gotra,
ØPravaras
ØSutra
(of Kalpa)
ØShakha
(Example:) A brahmana named 'X'
introduces himself as follows : I am 'X', of Shrivatsa gotra, of Āpastamba
sutra, of Taittiriya shākha of Yajurveda, of five pravaras named Bhārgava,
Chyāvana, Āpnavan, Aurva and Jāmdagnya (This example is based upon the example
given by Pattābhirām Shastri in the introduction to VedārthaPārijata, cf.
ref.).
While the gotras were classified
initially according to nine rishis
The pravaras were classified under
the names of the following seven rishis:
Agastya
Angirasa
Atri
Bhrigu
Kashyapa
Vasishtha
Vishvamitra
According to the listing of authors
included in the verses in Rigved, the rishi Jamadagni was a descendant of rishi
Bhrigu while the rishis Gautam and Bharadvaja were the descendants of rishi
Angirasa.
The pravara identifies the
association of a person with three or sometimes five of the abovementioned
rishis.
For example, Kashyapa Gothram has 3
rishis associated with it viz. Kashyapa, Daivala and Aavatsaara
Gothras and Pravaras
Suryadhwaja: Lakhi (Mehrishi),
Soral, Binju
Bharadwaj: Angirasa, Baaryhaspatya
(i.e. bRhaspati), Bharadwaja
Rathitara: Angirasa, Baaryhaspatya,
Rathitara
Vatula/Vadula: Bhargava, Vaitahavya,
Saavedasa
Srivatsa: Bhargava, Chyaavana,
Aapnavaana, Owrva, Jaamadaghneya
Salankayana: Viswaamitra,
Aghamarshana, Devarata
Shatamarshana: Angirasa, Powrukutsa,
Traasatasya
Atreya: Atreya, Aarchanaasa,
Syaavaasva
Kowsika: Vishwamitra, Aghavarshana,
Kowsika
Kalabodhana / Kalabhavasa (3
variations)
Kalabodhana: Viswaamitra,
AAgamarshana, Kalabodhana
Kalaboudha: Viswaamitra,
AAgamarshana, Kalaboudha
Kalabhavasa: Viswaamitra,
AAgamarshana, Kalabhavasa
Viswamitra: Vaiswaamitra, Devarata,
Owtala
Kaundinya: Vaasishta, Maitraavaruna,
Kaundinya
Harita/Haritasa: Angirasa,
Ambarisha, Yuvanasva
Gautamasa: Angirasa, Aayasyasa,
Gautama
Mowdgalya (3 Variations)
Angirasa, Bharmyasva, Mowdgalya
Tarkshya, Bharmyasva, Mowdgalya
Angirasa, Dhavya, Mowdgalya
Sandilya (3 Variations)
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Daivala
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Sandilya
Kasyapa, Daivala, Asitha
Naitruvakaasyapa: Kasyapa,
Aavatsara, Naitruva
Kutsa: Angirasa, Maandhatra, Kowtsa
Kanva (2 Variations)
Angirasa, Ajameeda, Kaanva
Angirasa, Kowra, Kaanva
Paraasara: Vaasishta, Saaktya,
Paarasarya
Aagastya: Aagastya, Tardhachyuta,
Sowmavaha
Gargi (2 Variations)
Angirasa, Bharhaspatya, Bharadwaja,
Upadhyay
Angirasa, Sainya, Gaargya
Bhadarayana: Angirasa, Paarshadaswa,
Raatitara
Kasyapa (3 Variations)
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Daivala
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Naidruva
(Naitruva)
Kasyapa, Aavatsaara, Naidruva
(Naitruva), Rebha, Raibha, Sandila, Saandilya
Sunkriti (2 Variations)
Angirasa, Kowravidha, Saankritya
Sadhya, Kowravidha, Saankritya
Angirasa, Pourukutsya, Thraasadasya
Goutam/gowtamasa Aangeerasa, ayasya,
gowtama
AgniVaiwaswatha: Angirasa,
Brahaspthayasa, Bharadwaja, Srukva, Agnivaiwaswathasa
Sankhyayana: Vishwamitra,
Aghamarshana, Devaratha
List of Brahmin Gotras
The following is a partial list of
gotras found in the Brahmin community of Hindus:
1  Agastya 
2  Alambani 
3  Angirasa 
4  Atreya 
5  Atri 
6  Bhakdi 
7  Bhardwaj 
8  Bharadvajasa 
8  Bhargava 
9  Chandilya 
10  Charora 
11  Chikitasa 
12  Dalabhya 
13  Darbhas 
14  Dhananjaya 
15  Dhanvantari 
16  Galvasaya 
17  Garga 
18  Gargheyasa 
19  Gaubhilya 
20  Gautam 
21  Gautamasa 
22  Harita 
23  Haritasa 
24  Hukman Bhal 
25  Jamadagni 
26  Jatukarna 
27  Kalabodhana 
28  Kalaboudha 
29  Kalabhavasa 
30  Kamakayana Vishwamitra 
31  Kanva 
32  Kapi 
33  Kapil 
34  Kashyapa 
35  Katyayana 
36  Kaundinya 
37  Kaunsh 
38  Kaushal 
39  Kaushalas 
40  Kushal 
41  Kaushika 
42  Kausyagasa 
43  Krishnatriya 
44  Krishnatreeya 
45  Kutsa 
46  Kutsasa 
47  Lakhi 
48  Lohit 
49  LohitaKowsika 
50  Lomasha 
51  Mandavya 
52  Matanga 
53  Mauna Bhargava 
54  Moudgalya 
55  Mudgala (Maudgalya, Moudgil, Modgil, Mudgal) 
56  Nithunthana 
57  Nrisimhadevara 
58  Nydravakashyapa 
59  Parashara 
60  Parthivasa 
61  Pouragutsya 
62  Purang 
63  Ratheetarasa 
64  Rathitara 
65  Rohinya 
66  Roushayadana 
67  Rowshayadana 
68  Saankritya (Sakarawar) 
69  Saawarna 
70  Saharia Joshi 
71  Salankayana 
72  Sandilyasa 
73  Sangar 
74  Sankrithi (Sankrityayan) 
75  Sankyanasa 
76  Sathamarshana 
77  Shaktri 
78  Shandelosya 
79  Shandilya, sanas 
80  Shaunaka 
81  Somnasser 
82  Soral 
83  Srivatsa 
84  Sumarkanth 
85  Suryadhwaja 
86  Tugnait 
87  Upadhyay 
88  Upamanyu 
89  Utsasya 
90  Vadula 
91  Vaidya/Baidya 
92  Valmiki 
93  Vardhulasa 
94  Vardhviyasa 
95  Vardhyswasa 
96  Vashishta 
97  Vatsa 
98  Veetahavya 
99  Vishnu 
100  Vishnuvardhana 
101  Viswamitra 
102  Yaska 
Implications
Although people belonging to the
same gotra are, in theory, related to each other patrilineally, and belong to
the same Brahmin caste, there may be very little else in common between them.
In fact, as per the Vedic system, a man and a woman belonging to the same gotra
are considered to be a brother and sister, and hence, a marriage between a man
and a woman belonging to the same gotra (known as sagotra) is forbidden as it
will cause anomalies in the progeny that come out of such a marriage. A married
woman takes up the gotra of her husband. The fact that people belong to a
certain gotra says nothing about their domicile, original place of residence,
mother tongue or family occupation, which can be known from than lower lever
classification below gotra: pravaras, sutra (of Kalpa) and shakha.
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